I'm Brandon Smith, a programmer in Austin, Texas. More about me.


My Favorite Rust Function Signature


I've gotten really into writing parsers lately, and Rust has turned out to be the perfect language for that. In the course of my adventures, I came up with the following:

fn tokenize<'a>(code: &'a str) -> impl Iterator<Item=&'a str> {

and it really deepened my appreciation for Rust.

What does this function do? #

For those not familiar with parsing, tokenization is the first step of the process. It takes a raw code string, like this:

let a = "foo";

and turns it into a linear series of meaningful tokens, like so:

["let", "a", "=", "\"foo\"", ";"]

This phase isn't terribly complicated, but it simplifies the mental model for the next pass: constructing an "abstract syntax tree". It removes whitespace from the equation, bundles up segments like strings and numbers, and just generally makes the code in the next pass cleaner.

The downside is that, if you perform this as a separate pass, your parser now has to iterate over all of the source code twice. This may not be the end of the world: tokenizing isn't the most expensive operation. But it isn't ideal, so some parsers combine the two passes into a single one, saving cycles at the expense of readability.

What's going on in the Rust version? #

I'll copy the signature here again for reference:

fn tokenize<'a>(code: &'a str) -> impl Iterator<Item=&'a str> {

There are several things going on here.

&str, in Rust, is a "string slice". It's effectively a character pointer and a length. The contents of the slice are guaranteed to be in valid, alive memory. &'a str is a string slice with a lifetime. The lifetime 'a, to be exact. This lifetime describes a limited span of time in which the reference (and the full contents of the slice) are guaranteed to be in valid, alive memory. More on this later.

Iterator<Item=&'a str> is an iterator over elements of type &'a str. This is a trait, though, not a concrete type. Rust needs a concrete type with a fixed size when you're defining something like a function, but luckily we can say impl Iterator<Item=&'a str>, which tells Rust, "fill in some type that implements Iterator<Item=&'a str>, to be inferred at compile-time". This is very helpful because in Rust there are lots and lots of different concrete types for Iterator; applying something like a map() or a filter() returns a whole new concrete type. So this way, we don't have to worry about keeping the function signature up to date as we work on the logic.

So what's so great about all this? #

Okay, so we have a function that takes a reference to a string slice and returns an iterator over string slices. Why's that special? There are two reasons.

Iterators let you treat one pass like it's two #

Remember how I said you traditionally have to pick between doing a separate tokenization pass, and doing a single pass with all the logic interleaved? With an iterator, you can have the best of both worlds.

When this function completes, it hasn't yet iterated over the string. It hasn't allocated any kind of collection in memory. It returns a structure that's prepared to iterate over the input string slice and produce a sequence of new slices. When this value later gets map()ed into something else, or filter()ed, or any other Iterator transformations get applied, the stages of the process get interleaved, and the "loops" effectively get folded into a single one. By doing this, we're able to get the clean abstraction of a tokenizing "pass" without the runtime overhead of a second loop!

But other languages have iterators. Rust's may be extra powerful and ergonomic, but they aren't a totally unique feature. The next part is very much unique to Rust.

Lifetimes let you share references fearlessly #

The tokenize() function doesn't allocate any new memory for a collection of tokens. That's great. But what may be less obvious is that it also doesn't allocate any memory for the tokens themselves! Each string slice representing a token is a direct pointer to part of the original string.

You can do this in C/C++, of course, but there's a danger: if those tokens are ever accessed after the original code string has been freed, you'll have a memory error.

For example: let's say you open a file and load the source code from it, and store the result in a local variable. Then you tokenize() it and send the tokens on to somewhere else outside of the function where the original string lived. Voilà, you've got a use-after-free error.

One way to guard against this is by copying each string segment into a new string, allocated on the heap, which allows you to safely pass it on after the original string is gone. But this comes with a cost: creating, copying, and eventually disposing of each of those new strings takes time (and memory). Code down the line also has to be aware that it's responsible for de-allocating those strings, otherwise they'll leak.

This is where the magic of lifetimes comes into play.

Rust prevents the above situation entirely. Normally, though, to accomplish this a &str coming into a function from elsewhere must be assumed to be static, or to be alive for the entire duration of the program's execution. This is the status assigned to, for example, a string literal that you've manually entered into your Rust code. Rust doesn't know, in the context of the function, how long that reference will be valid, so it must be pessimistic.

But. That little 'a says: "these things all live for the same span of time". We can assert that the original source code string lives at least as long as the tokens that reference it. By doing so, Rust can reason about whether or not those resulting token references are valid at a given point, and therefore doesn't have to assume them to be static! We can do whatever we want with those tokens and the compiler will guarantee that they always point to something valid, even if the source code is loaded in dynamically at runtime (from a file or otherwise). If we find out later via a compiler error that they really do need to outlive the source string, then we can copy them ("take ownership") at that point. If the compiler doesn't force us to do so, we know we're safe, and we know we can continue using the most efficient possible approach, fearlessly.

What we've effectively done is written the most optimistic possible function (in terms of memory safety), with no downsides, because the Rust compiler will tell us if we're misusing it and force us to then "step down" to whatever level of extra accommodation is needed.

Conclusion #

I've been using (and loving) Rust for about a year and a half now. And there are many things to love, but when I got this function working I immediately saw it as a microcosm of what really sets the language apart. This is something that you cannot do both a) this safely and b) this efficiently in any other language. This is the power of Rust.