I'm Brandon Smith, a programmer in Austin, Texas. More about me.


Why Rust strings seem hard


Lately I've been seeing lots of anecdotes from people trying to get into Rust who get really hung up on strings (&str, String, and their relationship). Beyond Rust's usual challenges around ownership, there can be an added layer of frustration because strings are so easy in the great majority of languages. You just add them together, split them, whatever! They're primitives that you can do whatever you want with. For someone who's only ever known this mental model (which is to say, never worked much with C/C++), using strings in Rust can be a rude awakening. They feel very complicated, have all these restrictions and extra steps, and it all just seems so unnecessary.

It's a testament to Rust's breadth and accessibility that even people who have never done low-level programming before are giving it a try. This is a good thing! But it comes with some extra challenges when you aren't coming in with a background in C/C++.

"Go learn C++ and come back" isn't a very reasonable solution to this problem, so I wanted to dig into one of the most common issues I see, and give a "cliff notes" explanation that hopefully makes Rust a bit more accessible to more people.

Let's jump into it.

What is a string, really? #

Strings are simple, right? They're just primitives - like numbers or booleans - that you can create with a literal ("foo"), pass around, copy freely, add together with other strings (or primitives), return from functions, etc.

Except they aren't.

Strings are weird #

A string is a primitive in the sense that it's fundamental: not many programs can accomplish much of value without dealing with strings. But it is not a primitive in terms of implementation.

A distinguishing feature of other primitives like numbers, booleans, etc, is that they have a constant size. Any two numbers of the same type (an f64, for example- or a double for the Java folks) take up the exact same number of bytes in memory. This means we can set aside space for a variable, or a function argument, or whatever, and we know that any possible f64 will be able to fit there. No matter what math we do on it, no matter how large or small its value is.

A string, on the other hand, does not have a constant size. If you take string A and string B, and they aren't identical ("foo" and "foo"), it's very unlikely they have the same size. "foofoo" takes up twice as much space in memory as "foo".

This is a problem, because under the hood flat data structures have to have a known size at compile-time, even in higher-level languages. Any data whose size can't be known at compile-time (or actively changes as the program runs) has to live on the heap, and be dynamically allocated as the program runs. This gets largely hidden from you in many languages like JavaScript.

So when you really get down to it, a string is a data structure living in the heap, not a primitive. Roughly speaking it's an array of characters (in C it is literally an array of characters). When you add two strings together, the program doesn't know in advance how big the result will be, so it needs to request the memory for it from the heap, as it's running. When you pass a string to a function, you're really passing a pointer to that heap-allocated array which some other code can use to look up its contents. The pointer itself, like a number, has a constant size.

"But strings are used constantly!" you might be thinking. "We're always slicing and dicing and remixing them; it would be insane to have to work with them as arrays, much less arrays that have to be manually re-allocated, copied, and de-allocated whenever their length changes!"

And you'd be right!

How most languages handle them #

By "most languages" I mean "most of the most commonly-used languages". Which is to say JavaScript, Python, Java, C#, Go, Kotlin, Swift, and so on. In all of these languages, strings are immutable. You may assign a different string into a string slot, but you may not change the string itself. The new one takes its place, the old one is lost to the winds of the garbage collector (unless some other code is using it, in which case it gets left alone).

This has a couple of major effects:

  1. It completes the illusion that strings are just primitives: numbers and booleans are immutable in these languages too! You may assign a new number into a "slot", but you cannot change the number per se.
  2. It makes working with strings much simpler in many ways. Like with numbers you can pass a string off to another function (or even another thread!) without worrying about what will be done to it (and the other code can receive it without worrying what yours might do to it). It also dovetails nicely with automatic garbage-collection, which these languages also have.

If you're new to C/C++/Rust, this is probably your mental model for strings. It's probably ingrained deep in your bones, and peeling back the assumptions you've formed is understandably a difficult thing to do.

How C++ and Rust handle them #

So how do strings work in C++ and Rust?

Well, the good news is they aren't just plain arrays of characters. Both languages give you a data structure wrapped around that character array which lets you do reasonable operations like append one string onto another, without manually tracking its length or re-allocating the underlying array as needed. Those things happen automatically.

The bad news (depending on your perspective) is that the language doesn't hide as much about them as the languages above. You get/have to work with strings as a data structure, not a primitive. In Rust, the String struct works very similarly to a Vec of characters (or a Python list, or a Java ArrayList, or a JavaScript array, etc), with some added bells and whistles for convenience. Like a Vec you can add characters onto the end, you can remove characters, and you can change characters in the middle. Other code that references the same String will see these updates. The String is a thing you very explicitly create (often via String::new() or String::from()), and possibly mutate, and then it gets de-allocated when it goes out of scope.

Why do this? Why aren't things simple like in those other languages?

Control. C++ and Rust are designed for use-cases where finely-grained control is valuable. For example there are times when you might want to re-use an existing String and replace or add to its contents, instead of allocating a whole new one each time you + something else with it. Giving people this level of control means presenting a more complex mental model.

What about this &str thing? #

String is the closest thing Rust has to the strings you're familiar with in other languages, but when you just type out a string literal, you get the type &str:

let foo: &str = "What the heck?";

A &str is a string slice. It's a reference (pointer + length) to a segment of one of those character arrays we've been talking about. If you have a mutable slice (&mut str) then you can mutate its contents, however you cannot change the length. A string slice always refers to the same series of bytes in memory; you cannot add or remove bytes, because it doesn't know how to re-allocate itself if it needs more room. It doesn't even know whether or not those bytes live on the heap. It's just a reference.

The key to understanding strings in Rust is to internalize the fact that every &str needs a place to live. Often it lives inside a String (we can get a &str from a String by calling the .as_str() method), but when your code itself contains a string literal like "What the heck?", the string you're given points to a part of your program itself. Your program's code contains that character array, so the &str can just point to it directly. But it can't grow or shrink (in fact, in this case it can't even change - you can't get a &mut str to it) because there's other stuff around it.

Bringing it all together #

I think the first wall lots of people hit with Rust strings is something like this:

let a: &str = "hello ";
let b: &str = "world";

let c = a + b;
error[E0369]: cannot add `&str` to `&str`
 --> src/
4 |     let c = a + b;
  |             - ^ - &str
  |             | |
  |             | `+` cannot be used to concatenate two `&str` strings
  |             &str
help: `to_owned()` can be used to create an owned `String` from a string 
reference. String concatenation appends the string on the right to the string 
on the left and may require reallocation. This requires ownership of the string 
on the left
4 |     let c = a.to_owned() + b;
  |             ^^^^^^^^^^^^

"What the heck? I have to call a method before I can add two strings together? This language sucks!"

But step back and think about it in the context of our new understanding: a and b live in our program's code, which can't be modified. So if we add them together, where does the new string live?

Well, it's going to have to live in a String. The language doesn't know how big it will need to be ahead of time, so we need to make a dynamic place for it that can adjust to whatever size necessary.

Where do we get that String? Well, we have some options there! We could create one separately:

let a: &str = "hello ";
let b: &str = "world";

let mut new_string: String = String::new();


let c = new_string.as_str();

That's a little clunky though. Fortunately, Rust makes our lives a little easier. In Rust the + operator will take a String on the left and a &str on the right, and it will call .push_str() on the left String, mutating it so that it now holds a copy of the &str's contents, and then the String will be the result of the addition. So this will work:

let c = String::from("hello ") + "world";  // c is a String, not a &str!

and is equivalent to this:

let mut new_string: String = String::from("hello ");
let c = new_string;

Okay, one last thing: what's that .to_owned() method suggested in the error message? .to_owned() is a Rust method that several data types implement, and is intended for exactly this situation. From the docs:

[ToOwned is] A generalization of Clone to borrowed data.

Some types make it possible to go from borrowed to owned, usually by implementing the Clone trait. But Clone works only for going from &T to T. The ToOwned trait generalizes Clone to construct owned data from any borrow of a given type.

That's a bit technical, but the gist is that when you have a non-mutable reference to something, but you need to mutate it, etc (which we do! because we need to put "world" somewhere), you call this method and it gives you a copy that you can do whatever you want with. In the case of &str, this copy ends up in the form of a String. So:

let foo: String = "some &str".to_owned();

When you've got two &strs that you want to add together into a new String, this is arguably the cleanest way to do it, which is why it's so conveniently suggested by the compiler:

let foo: String = "hello ".to_owned() + "world";

Conclusion #

Whew! That was longer than I thought it'd be.

Rust is a uniquely powerful language, and despite all its challenges, it's uniquely accessible in some ways. It's minting tons new low-level programmers who otherwise were/would've been scared off by C/C++. That's fantastic!

But being productive in it means learning how certain things really work, or you'll constantly be fighting with the compiler (which is still better than having constant bugs!). Hopefully I've shed light on one of those subjects today.

To summarize: every piece of string content in Rust has to live somewhere. That somewhere can be in a quoted string literal, inside a String on the heap, or somewhere else. When you're working with strings, you have to think about where the content actually lives/will live. If you don't have a place to put it, your code won't compile. If a reference/slice outlives the string content it's pointing at (borrowing is a topic for another day), your code won't compile. Incorporate this "where" into your mental model, and you'll have a much easier time getting your code to work.

Happy Rusting! 🦀